Indian Film Industry | industry

Common Indian population has always resorted to only one of its pass times all these years and it is the Indian Cinema. The movie industry has always been a constant source of entertainment with a variety of films in all different languages. Though Hindi has been the most spoken language, other southern languages have also been represented well in this industry. The Hindi film industry – “Bollywood” as it is called is probably the next biggest production house next to the Hollywood. It releases nearly 100 movies in different categories and all budget classes. The movies are always voted depending on their collections. These movies tend to release on the weekends to take full advantage of the weekend crowd. Further the industry has been finding it easy to attract audiences with the arrival of bigger Multiplexes that have their own way to attract the crowd. Though the ticket price is not that huge, people tend to enjoy their full money’s worth.The Indian film industry is the direct route to fame. This has lured in numerous youth who want to get famous. But hard work always pays off with the fans even worshiping their heroes as God. This has allowed the actors to make use of their fans and get into politics and get into a formidable post in the government and enjoying their life. people who have turned into politics and failed to impress their fans by their deeds have always been uprooted. Though people have always believed the reel life characters of their actors resemble their real life, it has turned to be true only in a few cases. The Hindi film industry always has a larger reach to different states and hence all the movies are done with a huge investment, but only a few succeed to get them back.The other regional languages are also close contenders for the top spot. Tamil film industry is closely following the Hindi one with Telugu and Malayalam closely following it. The fan following is much greater in the regional languages with the fan club making the day of the movie release into a festival at the cinema houses. The Demi Gods of the Tamil industry include SuperStar Rajinkanth and Kamalhasan who have always succeeded in bringing profits to their producers. The other demi gods includes Ambitab bachan, Badshah Shahrukh Khan, Salman khan, Chiranjeevi and Nagarjuna. The directors have always been the captain of the ship guiding the entire crew home. With other technicians chipping in with their content.The film industry has always been the road to success for talented people who rise from ashes to riches. Those with talent tend to survive longer with a little bit of luck favouring them. Indian film industry has always been a pioneer with new technologies and techniques introduced in every movie. Though the class is not as equal to its Hollywood contenders, their budget and time frame is not much larger like the Hollywood movies. This has always favoured the experimenting nature of the industry. The industry has people who thrive hard to do something different and with only a few surviving with is not only me expecting more entertainment and talent from this industry but the entire world.

Solving Manila’s Transport Congestion – A Rail Subway Solution | transportation

IntroductionManila is one of Asia’s great metropolises. It is a city of some sixteen million people that has some very serious transportation challenges. In the past, extensive transportation studies by experienced planners have concluded that Metro Manila required a mass transit system to resolve its congestion. As of 2008, three Elevated Rail Transport Systems (ERTS) have been constructed, but these systems are not truly integrated, and do not serve the primary business district of Makati, nor its satellite business and residential district of Fort Bonifacio. What is needed is an integrated system that will allow easy passenger movement between the Philippine National Railway (PNR) services and with at least two of the ERT systems, whilst providing a mass transport system for Makati, Fort Bonifacio and adjacent commercial and residential areas. In short, the Rail Subway system that is being proposed will create good transport connectivity for Metro Manila.Other possible solutions that include an extension of the massive elevated structures that characterise the present ERTs or an extension of the high cost and polluting expressway systems are too expensive. What is needed is an innovative and unique subway mass transit system.The ProposalSubway systems are not new. London, New York and Paris have long existing, efficient systems. Bangkok has a new subway system that is interconnected to that city’s ERT system, and to the Thai National Railways. For Manila, the proposed interconnected transport system will in some aspects mimic that which has been created in Bangkok.The subway system will connect Makati, and its residential villages, Fort Bonifacio, Mandaluyong, Pateros, Pasig/Ortigas and San Juan, an area of some twelve square kilometres. It will provide quick access between the major business, commercial and new and established residential areas of Metro Manila, and give ready access to the combined CBD for the population of Manila, and adjoining regions (through a revamped PNR).The proposal includes the provision of pedestrian interconnectivity with ERTS 2 and 3, and to the PNR’s north/south rail system. The PNR interconnection will provide access to depot yards and maintenance facilities, and later to an electrified rail system to the Clark International Airport in Pampanga. A link can be created from the subway to the Nino Aquino International and Domestic Airport terminals.EngineeringMany recent subway systems have been constructed using high technology Tunnel Boring Machines (TBMs). For Manila, the unique geology suggests that a second approach to tunnelling be used, this being the use of medium technology road-header machines with semi-integrated safe and efficient tunnel lining. (Note: The volcanic tuff that exists in the Manila basin, should be easily handled by the road-headers, and provide for safe and efficient rapidly progressing tunnel lining.)The use of road-headers with underground mine conveyors will allow for efficient tunnelling waste movement with the extraction of broken rock occurring where the underground tunnels ‘daylight’ adjacent to the Passig River bridge crossings. With respect to rolling stock, modern and skilled designers of the all-new subway alignment can take maximum economic and environmental advantage of the favourable features of advanced electric traction systems that will include regenerative breaking with low cost traction maintenance.FinancingAlthough Manila is a major Asian metropolis with a large portion of the population having good incomes, there is a percentage of the population that is ‘low income’. To make the integrated mass-transport system affordable to low income earners, the fare structure of the entire system will need to be carefully set. The pursuit of non-fare revenue streams from along the railway corridor, such as connection of stations to commercial enterprises that will include shopping precincts, will be sought for their revenue potentials. The development of commercial and new residential areas along the subway route should be taken into account in the creation of partnerships for the subway construction and thence operation.It is proposed that the project require no cash disbursements by the Government. The financing scheme will be of the Build Operate Own (BOO), Build Operate Own Transfer (BOOT), or similar.Progressing the Subway ProjectThe undertaking of a detailed feasibility study inclusive of project engineering and management, transport technology options, societal implications and financial models is required to understand if and how the Manila Subway Project can become a reality. Confirming the geology of the proposed route will be required as a major initial engineering contribution. This geological investigation will assist in determining the route, in selecting the excavation equipment and in providing an indication of the expected rate of progress of excavation.The project engineering will also consider the provision of underground sidings, connection to a surface rail depot, interconnection with the PNR, the form of ‘People Movers’ required for allowing passenger movement between the subway and the ERTS 2 and 3, and choosing a rail system with excellent environmental credentials and energy efficiency.Regarding the societal implications of the Subway Project, the feasibility study will look at the cost of the project in terms of traffic disruption during construction (to be kept to a minimal through underground tunnelling), the benefits of the project in terms of adding to Manila’s functionality, and the direct and indirect job and income opportunities created by the Subway. Financial models will be developed that will clearly show the costs and the income streams during construction and operation of the Subway, with appropriate financing schemes being developed.The feasibility study is expected to last for 26 weeks and result in a decision to undertake (or not undertake) the project. A ‘Bankable Document’ will be the deliverable if a decision is made to proceed.ConclusionIt is a great challenge to provide Metro Manila with a clean, efficient and non-polluting mass transport system. To provide riding passengers with an all-weather protected first class mass transport system at affordable fares is part of the challenge.The affordability will be ensured by creating a subway system that will require minimum purchase of real property, which will make best use of the favourable geology during construction, and will allow for the maximisation of non-fare revenues. The bringing together of sound engineering practice that takes into account the physical nature of the geology and terrain, the opportunities for transport system integration and good environmental engineering principles, whilst taking into account local social and economic factors, along with strong business and governmental support, will be required to make the Manila Rail Subway project a reality.Click here to view a diagram of the proposed route of the Manila Subway System